STMicroelectronics – The Discrete Charm of Electrification, DC/DC converter

stmicroelectronics

STMicroelectronics, On-Board Charger, DC/DC converter, Traction Inverter st microelectronic:

STMicroelectronics

Sales of electric vehicles reached 750,000 vehicles worldwide in 2016. Only China accounted for more than 300,000 vehicles. Forecasts range from 40 to 70 million STMicroelectronics electric cars to be deployed by 2025. All these data indicate that vehicle electrification is increasing at an incredible rate, thanks to cheaper battery technology, mileage, acceptable performance and environmental awareness.

Many countries offer incentives to switch to electric cars and the infrastructure of freight is spread. Much of the STMicroelectronics content is needed to feed this demand on electric cars, but focus on discrete power devices and see how they allow revolution electrification. There are three major areas in electric vehicles (hybrids and pure electric cars) where semiconductor power plays a key role. On-board charger, DC / DC converter and drive.

On-Board Charger

The charger is integrated on board or OBC in the car. It converts the power from the network (110VAC or 220-240VAC) to the desired DC voltage to charge the battery. The voltage DC is usually 400 volt DC, but 800 volt DC is also used to provide faster charging times. In the “charging start” applications, charging time depends on the customer’s electricity contract, 3.3 kW Max, single phase. This load is relatively slow, with 8 to 12 hours to fully charge the car batteries, compared to the DPS and UPS charging stations, but the power supply has the advantage of being widely available. The diagram shows a simplified OPEC, with SS / DDS, BCD and DDS-DDS conversion stages. The 650V (400V) and 1200V batteries (800V batteries) are available to create solutions for all charger output specifications (7 kW, 11 kW and 22 kW).  OBC Factor Corrector (PFC) requires MOSET and Dual LED. Silicon solutions at 650V and 1200 V formats offer price / performance options for designers. OBC DC / DC converter MOSET with a moderate conversion of 650V and 600V.

DC/DC converter

Traditionally, automotive STMicroelectronics have been powered by 12V voltage DC. Although electric cars now have 400V instead of 12V batteries, they still use 12V for applications such as interior lighting, entertainment and engines from windows. The DDS-DES adapter converts 400V to AC batteries in 12V for these applications. DC-DC converters are also used to convert HAV to 48V, 48V to 12V and other transfers depending on the YUV topology. The adopter diagram shows a simplified DC-DC, where the PHV represents a high-voltage battery, and a low-voltage battery flv.

On the side of the DC / DC Convert HV. MOSIT “soft switch” is 650V and 600V in the TO247 and D2PAK packages. On the side of the DC / DC turn the roll. MOSET low voltage power, usually with 40 note. Trinity input gate Moset transistor is perfect and available in different packages.

Traction Inverter of STMicroelectronics

Inverter traction supply main electric motor with its power. This is then used to drive the wheels and control the speed of the vehicle. In a typical configuration, the electric motor requires three stages of AC voltage. This is why the traction inverter is sometimes referred to as “DC-AC Convert”. Output power can reach 85 kW.

Until recently, it was the preferred power device for bipolar transistor or bipolar transistor isolators. The IGBT can pass up to 200A, with nominal power of 650V, sufficient for the inverter design. As shown in the diagram, each IGBT is connected with a 650 V free power diode to eliminate the high voltage spikes caused by the inductive nature of the load provided by the SS engine. However, the IGBT  solution is ineffective when the load is low (less than 40%), which causes loss of energy and decrease in car range.

An alternative to IGBT  is silicon carbide (SiC) musite. These devices, in 650V and 1200 V versions, are now available in automotive quality. SiC technology delivers unparalleled conversion performance over the entire load to reduce losses and also eliminates the need for “free” diodes. Smaller die sizes, higher operating temperature and output power mean that the SiC-based inverter can be smaller and requires less cooling than the IGBT solution, reducing the weight of the reflector and increasing the potential range of the vehicle.

The investment in SI-chip capacity supports the increased absorption of SiC technology to electrify the car, and the cost of an auto-based system for SiC conversion designs is lower, which allows for cheaper and more efficient electric vehicles, especially SiC technology helps to reduce the cost of expensive and complex cooling systems. Electric cars are one of the fastest growing applications requiring separate power components. SI is ​​a leader in this field and has invested heavily in technology to win over any other car electrification company.

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